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Science and technology

A hands-on tutorial of SQLite3

Applications fairly often save information. Whether your customers create easy textual content paperwork, advanced graphic layouts, sport progress, or an intricate listing of consumers and order numbers, software program normally implies that information is being generated. There are some ways to retailer information for repeated use. You can dump textual content to configuration codecs akin to INI, YAML, XML, or JSON, you possibly can write out uncooked binary information, or you possibly can retailer information in a structured database. SQLite is a self-contained, light-weight database that makes it straightforward to create, parse, question, modify, and transport information.

[Download our SQLite3 cheat sheet]

SQLite has been devoted to the public domain, which technically means it is not copyrighted and therefore requires no license. Should you require a license, you possibly can purchase a Warranty of Title. SQLite is immensely widespread, with an estimated 1 trillion SQLite databases in energetic use. That’s counting a number of databases on each Android and iOS gadget, each macOS and Windows 10 pc, most Linux programs, inside each Webkit-based internet browser, fashionable TV units, automotive multimedia programs, and numerous different software program purposes.

In abstract, it is a dependable and easy system to make use of for storing and organizing information.


You in all probability have already got SQLite libraries in your system, however you want its command-line instruments put in to make use of it immediately. On Linux, you in all probability have already got these instruments put in. The command offered by the instruments is sqlite3 (not simply sqlite).

If you do not have SQLite put in on Linux or BSD, you possibly can set up it out of your software program repository or ports tree, or download and install it from supply code or as a compiled binary.

On macOS or Windows, you possibly can obtain and set up SQLite instruments from

Using SQLite

It’s widespread to work together with a database by means of a programming language. For this cause, there are SQLite interfaces (or “bindings”) for Java, Python, Lua, PHP, Ruby, C++, and lots of many others. However, earlier than utilizing these libraries, it helps to know what’s really taking place with the database engine and why your alternative of a database is critical. This article introduces you to SQLite and the sqlite3 command so you will get accustomed to the fundamentals of how this database handles information.

Interacting with SQLite

You can work together with SQLite utilizing the sqlite3 command. This command supplies an interactive shell so you possibly can view and replace your databases.

$ sqlite3
SQLite model 2020-12-01 16:14:00
Enter ".help" for utilization hints.
Connected to a transient in-memory database.
Use ".open FILENAME" to reopen on a persistent database.

The command locations you in an SQLite subshell, and so your immediate is now an SQLite immediate. Your regular Bash instructions do not work right here. You should use SQLite instructions. To see an inventory of SQLite instructions, kind .assist:

sqlite> .assist
.archive ...             Manage SQL archives
.auth ON|OFF             SHOW authorizer callbacks
.backup ?DB? FILE        Backup DB (DEFAULT "main") TO FILE
.bail ON|off             Stop after hitting an error.  DEFAULT OFF
.binary ON|off           Turn BINARY output ON OR off.  DEFAULT OFF
.cd DIRECTORY            CHANGE the working listing TO DIRECTORY

Some of those instructions are binary, whereas others require distinctive arguments (like filenames, paths, and so forth.). These are administrative instructions to your SQLite shell and are usually not database queries. Databases take queries in Structured Query Language (SQL), and lots of SQLite queries are the identical as what chances are you’ll already know from the MySQL and MariaDB databases. However, information sorts and features differ, so pay shut consideration to minor variations when you’re accustomed to one other database.

Creating a database

When launching SQLite, you possibly can both open a immediate in reminiscence, or you possibly can choose a database to open:

$ sqlite3 mydatabase.db

If you don’t have any database but, you possibly can create one on the SQLite immediate:

sqlite> .open mydatabase.db

You now have an empty file in your laborious drive, prepared for use as an SQLite database. The file extension .db is unfair. You can even use .sqlite, or no matter you need.

Creating a desk

Databases include tables, which could be visualized as a spreadsheet. There’s a collection of rows (referred to as information in a database) and columns. The intersection of a row and a column is known as a subject.

The Structured Query Language (SQL) is known as after what it supplies: A way to inquire concerning the contents of a database in a predictable and constant syntax to obtain helpful outcomes. SQL reads rather a lot like an atypical English sentence, if a little bit robotic. Currently, your database is empty, devoid of any tables.

You can create a desk with the CREATE question. It’s helpful to mix this with the IF NOT EXISTS assertion, which prevents SQLite from clobbering an present desk.

You cannot create an empty desk in SQLite, so earlier than attempting a CREATE assertion, you have to take into consideration what sort of information you anticipate the desk will retailer. In this instance, I will create a desk referred to as member with these columns:

  • A singular identifier
  • An individual’s title
  • The date and time of knowledge entry

Unique ID

It’s all the time good to discuss with a file by a singular quantity, and by chance SQLite acknowledges this and does it robotically for you in a column referred to as rowid.

No SQL assertion is required to create this subject.

Data sorts

For my instance desk, I am making a title column to carry TEXT information. To stop a file from being created with out information in a specified subject, you possibly can add the NOT NULL directive.

The SQL to create this subject is: title TEXT NOT NULL

There are 5 information sorts (really storage lessons) in SQLite:

  • TEXT: a textual content string
  • INTEGER: a complete quantity
  • REAL: a floating level (limitless decimal locations) quantity
  • BLOB: binary information (for example, a .jpeg or .webp picture)
  • NULL: a null worth

Date and time stamp

SQLite features a handy date and timestamp operate. It just isn’t an information kind itself however a operate in SQLite that generates both a string or integer, relying in your desired format. In this instance, I left it because the default.

The SQL to create this subject is: datestamp DATETIME DEFAULT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP

Table creation SQL

The full SQL for creating this instance desk in SQLite:

...> member (title TEXT NOT NULL,

In this code pattern, I pressed Return after the logical clauses of the assertion to make it simpler to learn. SQLite will not run your command until it terminates with a semi-colon (;).

You can confirm that the desk has been created with the SQLite command .tables:

View all columns in a desk

You can confirm what columns and rows a desk incorporates with the PRAGMA assertion:

sqlite> PRAGMA table_info(member);

Data entry

You can populate your new desk with some pattern information by utilizing the INSERT SQL key phrase:

> INSERT INTO member (title) VALUES ('Alice');
> INSERT INTO member (title) VALUES ('Bob');
> INSERT INTO member (title) VALUES ('Carol');
> INSERT INTO member (title) VALUES ('David');

Verify the info within the desk:

> SELECT * FROM member;
Alice|2020-12-15 22:39:00
Bob|2020-12-15 22:39:02
Carol|2020-12-15 22:39:05
David|2020-12-15 22:39:07

Adding a number of rows directly

Now create a second desk:

...> distro TEXT NOT NULL)

Populate it with some pattern information, this time utilizing a little bit VALUES shortcut so you possibly can add a number of rows in only one command. The VALUES key phrase expects an inventory in parentheses however can take a number of lists separated by commas:

> INSERT INTO linux (distro)
...> VALUES ('Slackware'), ('RHEL'),
...> ('Fedora'),('Debian');

Altering a desk

You now have two tables, however as but, there isn’t any relationship between the 2. They every include unbiased information, however probably you would possibly must affiliate a member of the primary desk to a particular merchandise listed within the second.

To try this, you possibly can create a brand new column for the primary desk that corresponds to one thing within the second. Because each tables had been designed with distinctive identifiers (robotically, due to SQLite), the simplest method to join them is to make use of the rowid subject of 1 as a selector for the opposite.

Create a brand new column within the first desk to symbolize a price within the second desk:

> ALTER TABLE member ADD os INT;

Using the distinctive IDs of the linux desk, assign a distribution to every member. Because the information exist already, you employ the UPDATE SQL key phrase reasonably than INSERT. Specifically, you need to choose one row after which replace the worth of 1 column. Syntactically, that is expressed a little bit in reverse, with the replace taking place first and the choice matching final:

> UPDATE member SET os=1 WHERE title='Alice';

Repeat this course of for the opposite names within the member desk, simply to populate it with information. For selection, assign three totally different distributions throughout the 4 rows (doubling up on one).

Joining tables

Now that these two tables relate to 1 one other, you should use SQL to show the related information. There are many sorts of joins in databases, however you possibly can strive all of them as soon as you already know the fundamentals. Here’s a fundamental be part of to correlate the values discovered within the os subject of the member desk to the id subject of the linux desk:

> SELECT * FROM member INNER JOIN linux ON member.os=linux.rowid;
Alice|2020-12-15 22:39:00|1|Slackware
Bob|2020-12-15 22:39:02|three|Fedora
Carol|2020-12-15 22:39:05|three|Fedora
David|2020-12-15 22:39:07|four|Debian

The os and id fields type the be part of.

In a graphical software, you possibly can think about that the os subject is likely to be set by a drop-down menu, the values for that are drawn from the contents of the distro subject of the linux desk. By utilizing separate tables for distinctive however associated units of knowledge, you make sure the consistency and validity of knowledge, and due to SQL, you possibly can affiliate them dynamically later.

Learning extra

SQLite is an infinitely helpful self-contained, transportable, open supply database. Learning to make use of it interactively is a superb first step towards managing it for internet purposes or utilizing it by means of programming language libraries.

If you take pleasure in SQLite, you may also strive Fossil by the identical writer, Dr. Richard Hipp.

As you be taught and use SQLite, it could assist to have an inventory of widespread instructions close by, so obtain our SQLite3 cheat sheet right now!

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